Episode # 182 – Who is an “Utthama-Purusha”, “Madhyama-Purusha” & “Adhama-Purusha”? Vidura’s interesting explanation!!!


In the previous episode we had witnessed yet another important message from Vidura, who now invokes Dattathreya’s words of advice to highlight certain points to King Dhirdiraashtra. Now he speaks about how we should maintain ourselves by not talking or thinking ill of others at any instance. More than talking, we should not even think ill about others in whatsoever way. Even if the other person abuses us, scolds us in a bad way, we should still try and maintain our balance not to curse them. We should always remember that if we have bad thoughts about others, these bad thoughts would create an aura around us that is bad, and eventually we would not be able to make any progress spiritually. Each time when we think bad about others, we should always remember that we’re moving a step away from Bhagawan every time! This is because Bhagawan wants all of us to live in peace and love! There is no space for hatred in Bhagawan’s dictionary. Hence we need to be careful not to enter into all these things and spoil our divine relationship with Bhagawan! 🙂

In this way, Vidura uses this explanation to indirectly ask King Dhirdiraashtra as to why he’s having a negative approach towards the Paandavas? Vidura explains to him that he shouldn’t be afraid of how Duryodhana would react if he leans towards the Paandavas. This is because, if King Dhirdiraashtra would stand by the Dharma, it would protect him from the “Adharmic” Duryodhana. Moreover, Bhagawan Krishna is watching all this play unfolding! If King Dhirdiraashtra takes a stance towards Dharma, definitely Bhagawan Krishna is going to shower his unending grace on him, thereby protecting him from the wrath of his wicked son!

Thus Vidura explains very clearly that we should make a conscious effort to attain that balance and should not get disturbed or over-worked on scolding and abusing others! If we try this, it would definitely be possible and I’m sure if all of us take this as a pledge, the world would become a much better place to live in!

Vidura thus continues in the second line of the same sloka by saying Satyavaadi mrudhuddhaanthaha yasya utthama purushaha!!” wherein he reiterates this point that a person would be called and hailed as a “Utthama-Purusha” if he stands by the “Dharma” and Truth at all times, even during testing times! A person is also hailed as a “Utthama-Purusha” if he is able to talk in a soft but pointed manner, if he is able to exert complete control on all his five senses and if he’s able to handle any situation without any tension or imbalance!

In the next following sloka, Vidura is now going to explain who is a “Madhyama-Purusha”. This is a category that is one step lower than the “Utthama-Purusha”. Vidura says thus:

“Na anarthakam saanthvayathi prathighnyaaya dadhaashicha!

Randram parasya jaanaathi yahaa sa madhyama purushaha!!”

 Here he explains three important characteristics of a person who falls under the category of “Madhyama-Purusha”. What are they? The first one – “Na anarthakam saanthvayathi!”If a person promises to give something to someone, he doesn’t go back on his promise. He definitely stands by it and tries to somehow execute the promise. In other words, this person would never end up cheating others by his words and is a trustable person. Secondly he says, Prathighnyaaya dadhaashicha!!” – This is a continuation of the previous point that this “Madhyama-Purusha” honours his words truly and honestly and if he has to give something to someone duly, he would go ahead and give it without any hesitation.

Thirdly and most importantly he says, Randram parasya jaanaathi!”Here he says that this person knows who is at fault for what problem or issue, yet he would not disclose this truth to the outside world. If such a characteristic is imbibed in a person, he would be rated only as a “Madhyama-Purusha”. Thus Vidura says that the person who is an embodiment of all the above-mentioned three characteristics is supposed to be a “Madhyama-Purusha”.

The message from this point is that, if a person doesn’t look at any fault in any living being in this world, he is an “Utthama-Purusha”. However, if a person finds a fault in somebody or something, but refrains himself from expressing it to the world is termed as a “Madhyama-Purusha”. However, if a person keeps on finding faults in everybody and everything and also keeps cribbing about them every time, he is termed as “Adhama-Purusha”, which is the lowest category amongst the three. So for today, let us introspect within ourselves as to which of the three categories of people would we fall under! If we’re falling under the second or the third category, it is evident that we should make a conscious effort to move towards the first category (“Utthama-Purusha”) by not finding faults with anyone or anything in this world unnecessarily.

We shouldn’t forget that Vidura has explained only the first two categories for now – “Utthama-Purusha” and “Madhyama Purusha”. He is yet to talk in detail about the third category – “Adhama-Purusha”. However the way in which he is going to describe “Adhama-Purusha” is going to funny and at the same time, he is going to poke King Dhirdiraashtra with his candid way of explaining! He is not directly going to explain the characteristics of an “Adhama-Purusha” like he did for the other two categories. Instead, Vidura is going to talk about one of King Dhirdiraashtra’s sons – Ducchaasana, who is the brother of Duryodhana and through this, he is going to explain who is an “Adhama-Purusha”! Let us wait for this interesting explanation till the next episode! Stay tuned! 🙂


Published by Dr. Jeayaram

Holds a PhD in Management Psychology from Universite Paris Saclay, Paris, France. Also an Asst. Professor of Human Resources management at International School of Business & Media, Pune, India. A professional South Indian classical musician (singer) performing concerts. Through this blog, I'm trying to bring out the richness of Indian culture & values and I request your support and feedbacks in making this humble effort a success!!

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