Episode # 104 – Commencing the second “Adhyaaya” of Vidura Neethi – A brief introduction & overview!!!

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In the previous episode we had witnessed a direct advice from Vidura to King Dhirdiraashtra over changing his mental stance towards the Paandavas. Vidura sends out a strong message in terms of his advice that King Dhirdiraashtra is getting along with the bad intentions and actions of his wicked son Duryodhana, who is not only ruining his own life, but also the life of the entire kingdom of Hasthinapura. It is because of Duryodhana’s hunger and greed for power, money and women, the entire “Kaurava” clan is facing extinction very soon in the hands of the Paandavas and Bhagawan Krishna. Vidura elucidates in detail that although Duryodhana puts the Paandavas to several rounds of immense torture, they have an extremely high regard and respect towards King Dhirdiraashtra. Although the Paandavas are a force to reckon with and they are as powerful as Indra and the other Devas (Celestial being), they never show it out and still abide by their respect towards the kingdom and King Dhirdiraashtra. Thus Vidura advises to split the kingdom and distribute the due share to the Paandavas to avoid major disasters that are coming by the way.

But is King Dhirdiraasthra ready to listen to all this important advice? Sadly the answer is “No!” The beauty of the whole context here is that, he himself knows very well that he is committing a mistake here – The moment when he took a stance that he is not going to split the kingdom and give a portion of it to the Paandavas, he has committed the biggest crime! Of course, he is also feeling guilty about it. But the problem is that, he is knowingly sticking on to his mistake without repenting and relenting for it since he is completely immersed into “Puthra-Vaatsalya” (Excessive affection towards his sons) and thus unable to appreciate Vidura’s excellent advice. However, Vidura is not going to give up. He is still going to try and convince his King with all the Dharma again. He is continuing that if King Dhirdiraashtra pays heed to him, he can lead a happy, peaceful and a contented life along with the path of “Dharma”.

With this note we come to the end of the first “Adhyaaya” (Chapter) of Vidura Neethi! We’ve so far witnessed Vidura’s different “packages” of “Dharma”. We had seen slokas explaining one aspect of Dharma, slokas explaining two aspects, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and finally ten aspects of Dharma packed into each sloka. We’ve also seen how all these important principles of “Dharma” are exactly applicable and relevant in our present day scenarios as well. We’ve already witnessed in the beginning that the Vidura Neeti comprises of eight “Adhyaayas” (Chapters) under the “Prajaakara Parva” under the main “Udyoga Parva”. In that way, we’ve taken 102 episodes to explain only one “Adhyaaya” and we still have seven more to witness!

Today we officially mark the commencement of our discussion pertaining to the second “Adhyaaya” and let us see how Vidura is going to structure his narrative, so as to convince King Dhirdiraashtra. In today’s episode, I shall give a brief introduction and an overview of the second “Adhyaaya”  for the benefit of our readers and what is in store for detailed discussion in this part.

Here, Vidura is starting with an important explanation on how significant is “limit” in our lives. All of us know and are aware that there is a “limit” for everything in our daily lives. For instance, if we eat more or less than the prescribed limit of food everyday, we are going to land up in severe health problems. If we’re going to scold or yell at someone beyond limits, it is definitely going to backfire at us. Similarly, for everything in life, we need to have a limit and a control. Here Vidura gives a beautiful explanation with regards to this “limits” and what are the extents to this limit and how do we practice it in our everyday life.

While explaining this important aspect, the first thing what Vidura is focusing here is that, we should never hurry up too much to complete our tasks. If we perform a task with too much of a hurry, many a times we would end up in a disaster and the output would not be of any use to anybody. Secondly he talks about the ways, in which a king should collect taxes from his subjects, how diligently people should pay their taxes dues to the government, how efficient and righteous a king or a ruler should conduct himself, (of course in our modern day context, we can assume “king” as “leader of the country, state, city”) etc. Thirdly, this chapter is going to talk about three important types of “crazy ways” in which human beings can behave or conduct themselves, and how do we meet our downfall because of these “crazy ways”. It also talks about how do we prevent ourselves from falling trap into these three “crazy” and “bad” ways of life. Fourthly, Vidura is going to talk about how do we control our five senses at all times. If we let our senses go as per their wish, it would eventually lead us to downfall and disaster and our life would become full of miseries. Thus Vidura is trying to teach King Dhirdiraashtra and all of us, how to gain complete control of our senses. Finally, Vidura is going to talk about how do we control our tongue! Irrespective of whether we implement the above-mentioned aspects or not, this one is extremely important. If we try and follow all the above aspects, but fail to control our talking and words, everything goes into the dustbin! Hence we should know what to talk, when to talk and how to talk. In this chapter, Vidura is going to explain in detail about how do we achieve this.

Thus today we’ve seen a very brief overview of the second “Adhyaaya” of Vidura Neethi and I hope our readers would have got a rough idea of what is going to be discussed from now. Of course we had to take a lot of time and episodes to discuss the first “Adhyaaya” in so much of detail, since this was a huge one and had all the fundamental aspects of our Indian Dharma in it. We needed to spend so much of time in understanding the basics and from now we shall move a little quicker. We shall wait till the next episode to commence our discussion on each of the important points that we’ve discussed in the overview of the second “Adhyaaya”. Stay tuned! 🙂

Published by Dr. Jeayaram

Holds a PhD in Management Psychology from Universite Paris Saclay, Paris, France. Also an Asst. Professor of Human Resources management at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in Kerala, India. A professional South Indian classical musician (singer) performing concerts. Through this blog, I'm trying to bring out the richness of Indian culture & values and I request your support and feedbacks in making this humble effort a success!!

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